F2-eZine Content Archive #9 - January-March 2002

Henry Wilhelm on "Archival Inks"

Epson Printers are leaders in the marketplace

Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. For a comprehensive view of all printing inks and their stability
make sure you stop by this site and read what Mr. Wilhelm has to say about display life and inks.

A discussion of changes being made in the image permanence test methods at Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. to better take into account the potentially large reciprocity failures that may occur in high-intensity accelerated light fading tests, humidity-fastness problems, and susceptibility of inkjet prints to the effects of ozone and other atmospheric contaminants.The influence of different types of inkjet media on resistance to gas fading, susceptibility to high-intensity reciprocity failures, and humidity-fastness problems are described and recent industry developments in this area are discussed.  All of this is aimed at better understanding and simulating the behavior of prints during long-term display and storage in the wide range of conditions that may be encountered in homes and offices throughout the world and more...


WIPI article on Epson/Graham Nash collaboration

Epson Worldwide
www.Epson.com or call 800-Go Epson (800) 463-7766

WIPI greatfully appreciates the support and contribution of EPSON America, Inc. for the winners of: International Tea Time Exhibition

SPE National Conference 2002
Las Vegas, Nevada
March 21-24, 2002

Society for Photographic Education, 39th National Conference
Fact or Fiction: Photography and Mediated Experience
Tropicana Hotel, Las Vegas, March 21-24, 2002


Planning for Fact or Fiction: Photography and Mediated Experience, SPE’s 2002 National Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada is well under way, and all indicators point to a gathering that will be both dynamic and memorable. The Tropicana Hotel, our meeting site on the infamous Strip, promises myriad opportunities for visual (and other) entertainment.

Tracey Moffatt, an internationally recognized photographer, film and video artist who was born in Australia and is currently based in New York City, has agreed to offer the keynote address, making a rare appearance in the midst of an art-making schedule that does not typically include lectures. The Reverend Ethan Acres, a Las Vegas-based installation and performance artist who is also an ordained minister, and who documents his various personae in photographs, will be our guest speaker. Acres addresses both the lighter and darker sides of our spiritual selves with an off-beat humor that has captured the attention of critics and audiences alike. Las Vegas-based freelance writer Dave Hickey will be our featured speaker. Bart Parker will be celebrated as the Honored Educator.

The tentative list of general presenters includes:

Image Makers: Joann Brennan, Deborah Bright, Angie Buckley, Sylvia de Swaan, Krista Elrick, Paola Ferrario, Robert Flynt, Ellen Garvens, Gary Goldberg, Susan kae Grant, Richard Gray, Danny Guthrie, Phil Harris, Fern Logan, Martha Madigan, Michael J. Marshall, Valerie Mendoza, Mel Rosenthal, Steven Skopik, Erin Sotak, Anna Ullrich, William Williams, Mary Wolf, and Jeffrey Wolin.

Presenters: David Bate, Makeda Best, Lynn Cazabon, Rebecca Cummins, Douglas Holleley, Tamarra Kaida, Louis Kaplan, Margot Anne Kelley, Julieanne Kost, Richard Krueger, Stacey McCarroll, D. John McCarthy, Sara Northerner, Peter Palmquist, Sara-Jayne Parsons, Christine Shank, Joan Stewart Smith, Mary Virginia Swanson, Nick Tobier, Nancy Wride, and Cheryl

Panel Moderators: Byron Brauchli, Ellen Carey, Barbara DeGenevieve, Cass Fey, Carol Flax, Fleming Lunsford, Karen Norton, and Susan Ressler.

Our four-day conference will be filled with lectures, panel discussions, and artists’ presentations. The exhibits fair provides attendees the opportunity to learn more about the latest equipment, technologies, publications, and support organizations, as presented by over 50 corporate exhibitors, including our Conference Sponsors (as of 9/01/01): Polaroid, Adobe, Calumet, Epson, Fuji, Hasselblad, Kodak, Mamiya, and Beaver Hollow Design. Career placement services, workshops, one-on-one portfolio reviews and group portfolio sharing sessions are other popular features at the conference. SPE’s 39th National Conference will incorporate Las Vegas as a means to explore themes which include virtual experience, identity and facade, fantasy, and the role of through-the-lens culture in our unfolding 21st century. Please come and join us in this exciting city!

Conference Details: (Portfolio Reviews, Career Placement, Conference Site, Air Travel, Students, Corporate Sponsorship, Advertising, Exhibits Fair, Registration and Conference Rates, Questions)

Contact Information:
SPE National Office:
110 Art Building
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056-2486
Phone: 513-529-8328
Fax: 513-529-1532 (ATTN: SPE)
email SocPhotoEd@aol.com, for immediate assistance. 

Please also contact the national office, if you will require special assistance during the conference.

Conference chair:  David Taylor

REMINDER:  Please make your hotel reservations very early.  Las Vegas hotels boast a 98 percent occupancy rate.  Our conference hotel may sell out of rooms at our conference discount long before the reservation deadline of Feb. 16, 2002.

Polaroid Now You See It,
or Is it History 1933- 2001?

EXCERPTS FROM Financial Times

Polaroid paid directors as bankruptcy neared
The Boston Globe - US Abstracts; Dec 21, 2001

Polaroid Corp. paid out large bonuses to its board of directors shortly before declaring itself
bankrupt, according to documents lodged with a Delaware court. The payments were worth
between $63,000 and $272, 000 and came in the form of lump sums according to the details
of the firm's bankruptcy filing. Observers are now wondering whether or not executives clearing
the payments knew the extent of the firm's overall financial problems at the time the
transactions were approved. Abstracted from: The Boston Globe

Excerpts from Polaroid.com website - Below History of Polaroid starting 1933

To Our Valued Customers:
On October 12, 2001
, Polaroid Corporation and all of its U.S. subsidiaries voluntarily filed for Chapter 11 under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. This was a difficult but necessary action. Despite our best efforts to stabilize revenue, reduce costs and maximize cash flow, the company's financial condition deteriorated further in recent weeks. Polaroid intends to use the Chapter 11 process to restructure its business operations and finances.

We would like to take this opportunity to assure you that Polaroid is open and conducting business in the U.S. and elsewhere around the world. We continue to focus on serving our customers, and we have enhanced our liquidity position by supplementing cash flow from operations with $50 million in new financing.

We are accelerating our exploration of a sale of all or parts of the company, while working closely with our creditors to develop a plan of reorganization to resolve their financial claims.
We have requested court permission to continue to honor and service warranties on all of our products, and we expect to receive that permission shortly.

Going forward, Polaroid intends to continue to manufacture, market and distribute our core instant imaging products, and to continue to provide the high quality service and support for these products that our customers expect.

We continue to have high expectations for our Opal and Onyx instant digital printing (IDP) technologies, and we will continue to pursue ways to maximize potential partnership opportunities for our IDP business.

We are also in the process of a strategic business evaluation, which could result in the sale or elimination of certain products that are not part of our core instant imaging product line. We expect that this evaluation will proceed expeditiously, and we will communicate changes when they happen.

If you have any questions, please call your usual customer service representative, our customer care center at 1-800-343-5000, or call our toll-free restructuring information hotline at 1-800-386-0145, or visit our web site at www.Polaroid.com. As always, we will be happy to assist with any concerns or issues that you may have.

Please be assured that we continue to place the highest value on our relationship with you, and that your satisfaction with our products and services remains our foremost priority.

To Our Valued Suppliers:
On October 12, 2001, Polaroid Corporation and all of its U.S. subsidiaries voluntarily commenced Chapter 11 reorganization proceedings. This was a difficult but necessary action. Despite our best efforts to stabilize revenue, reduce costs and maximize cash flow, the company's financial condition deteriorated further in recent weeks. Polaroid intends to use the Chapter 11 process to restructure its business operations and finances.

Please be assured that Polaroid is open and conducting business in the U.S. and elsewhere around the world. We are continuing to focus on serving our customers.

The company's non-U.S. subsidiaries – including those in Europe, Asia and Japan – are not part of this filing.

Moving forward, Polaroid expects to meet all of its post-petition supplier obligations, including payment of invoices for goods and services sold to the company and all of its subsidiaries on or after our filing date of October 12, 2001. To help meet our trade obligations moving forward, we are supplementing our existing cash flow with an additional $50 million available to us from a new debtor-in-possession (DIP) financing commitment from a bank group led by J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.
You should also be aware that:

* Under federal law, unpaid invoices for goods or services sold to Polaroid Corporation and its U.S. subsidiaries prior to our filing date of October 12, 2001, are now frozen and will be treated as general unsecured claims in the reorganization proceedings. We deeply regret any hardship or inconvenience this may cause. If you believe you are in this category, you will be receiving information about how to file such a claim in the near future.

* Invoices for goods and services sold to Polaroid's non-U.S. subsidiaries will be honored under normal terms, whether or not they were provided before, on or after the October 12, 2001 filing date.

Going forward, Polaroid and its lenders have agreed to accelerate and intensify our exploration of a sale of all or parts of the company. We have also initiated a thorough evaluation of all aspects of our business operations with the objective of achieving significant cost savings beyond those already provided by our previous restructuring activities. The company will be communicating its decisions on these subjects as soon as possible.

If you have any questions, please call your usual Polaroid representative, or in the U.S. call our toll-free restructuring information hotline, at 1-800-386-0145. Additional information can also be found on our web site at www.Polaroid.com.
We have always valued our relationship with you and look forward to continuing to work together in the future.

Company History

In 1926, Polaroid's founder, Edwin H. Land, left Harvard University after his freshman year to conduct research on light polarization. In 1928, he invented the first synthetic sheet polarizer and filed for a patent in 1929. Its possible uses include photographic filters, sunglasses, and glare-reducing windows for planes

Land forms Land-Wheelwright Laboratories in Boston with Harvard physics instructor, George Wheelwright III, and continues the research and manufacture of synthetic polarizers.

Land-Wheelwright provides sick pay and Christmas bonuses to employees, initiating a pattern which earned Land a reputation as an innovative and forward-thinking employer.

Land forms Polaroid Corporation in 1937 and begins to develop a variety of products from the polarizer technology. Polaroid day glasses are introduced. Polaroid desk lamp is developed. The lamp includes a polarizer which reduces glare. Net sales: $141,935. Employees: 36.

The company focuses its efforts on defense projects and products, including goggles and vectograph 3-D pictures, which will be used for aerial reconnaissance surveys in World War II.

Land conceives of the one-step photographic process. Net sales: $13,262,329. Net earnings: $473,284. Employees: 1,250.

In 1947, instant photography is introduced. On Feb. 21, Land demonstrates instant film at the Optical Society of America meeting in New York City. The invention astonishes the photographic community and will prove to have a profound and lasting influence on the field.

On Nov. 26, 1948, Polaroid introduces the Model 95 Land Camera and Type 40 sepia-toned instant roll film at Jordan Marsh department store (now Macy's), in Boston. The camera sells for $89.50 and features a three-element 135mm f/11 lens and shutter speeds from 1/8 to 1/60 of a second. Net sales: $2,481,372. Net loss: ($865,255).

Land hires Ansel Adams as a consultant. Sales of the Polaroid Land Camera exceed $5 million in the first full year.

In 1947, instant photography is introduced. On Feb. 21, Land demonstrates instant film at the Optical Society of America meeting in New York City. The invention astonishes the photographic community and will prove to have a profound and lasting influence on the field.

Company hits milestone: one million rolls of instant film manufactured. First black and white instant roll film, Type 41, introduced.

First instant film for radiography, Type 1001 is introduced.

Construction begins in Waltham, MA on new film manufacturing plant. TV commercials on TheTonight Show with Steve Allen. New cameras introduced: Speedliner Model 95A, Model 100 and smaller-format Highlander Model 80. Net sales: $23.5 million. Net earnings: $1 million. Employees:1,162.
Land appointed head of the Intelligence Section of President Eisenhower's Technological Capabilities Panel. The most well-known concept from the Intelligence Section's report is the U-2 air reconnaissance system.

Polaroid listed on the New York Stock Exchange. New cameras: Model 80A, Model 95B, Model 150, Model 800 and the Model 110A. Black and white ASA 1000 transparency films are introduced in two sizes.

4x5 instant film and film holders introduced for professional use.

New film speed: Type 47 B&W roll film, ASA3000. First international subsidiaries -- Germany and Canada. Net sales $89.9 million. Net earnings: $10.7 million. Employees: 2,505.

Japanese and Italian subsidiaries created. Polaroid's first automatic exposure camera, the Model 900 with electric eye, is introduced.

French subsidiary opens. Type 55 Positive/Negative black and white film is introduced. Also two new electric eye cameras -- the Model J66 and Model J33.

Land becomes a member of President Kennedy's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.

Polaroid U.K. Ltd. formed. Polaroid MP-3 Land camera introduced -- a copystand camera with macro- and microphotography capabilities for use in research labs, hospitals, universities and industry.

Instant color film introduced -- Type 48 and Type 38 Polacolor Land roll film. The Model 100 folding pack film camera - first camera to use transistorized electronics to manage shutter timing for automatic exposure. Also Type 107 black and white and Type 108 color instant pack films introduced.

The 5 millionth instant camera is produced. Film manufacturing for the Common Market begins in the Netherlands. CU-5 Close-up camera is introduced.

Film production begins in the U.K. More European subsidiaries formed. Ali McGraw appears in the award-winning advertising campaign for the $19.95 Swinger camera. Polaroid sponsors new public television show, The French Chef, with Julia Child. Net sales: $204 million. Net earnings: $29 million. Employees 4,987.

Polaroid forms subsidiary, Inner City, Inc. to give career training to economically disadvantaged residents of Boston/Cambridge.

The Colorpack II camera is the first non-folding, plastic-bodied camera for pack film and the first low-priced camera that uses both color and black and white instant film. Banks begin using the ID-2 Land Identification System in Master Charge and Bank Americard charge accounts

New products: Miniportrait Land cameras for passport and other document photography, Big Shot portrait camera, Square Shooter with square-format film, the ID-3 Land Identification system. Employees: 11,654. Patents: 1,238.

The Polaroid SX-70 Land camera is introduced -- the first fully automatic, motorized, folding, single lens reflex camera which ejects self-developing, self-timing instant color prints. Sir Lawrence Olivier appears as spokesman in advertising for the SX-70. A film introducing the camera and film technology is produced by designer Charles Eames, with script by Dr. Philip Morrison, Professor of Physics and MIT and music by Elmer Bernstein. Land and the SX-70 camera are featured on the cover of Life Magazine.

Polacolor 2 Type 108 film is launched along with several new cameras: SX-70 Model 3, Super Shooter, Electric Zip, Model 355, Color Swinger and Miniportrait. Land resigns as President of the company, continues as chairman, CEO and director of research.
Pronto!, an inexpensive camera using SX-70 film, is introduced. Polaroid files suit against Eastman Kodak for patent infringement.

Mariette Hartley and James Garner star in TV and print ads. The OneStep becomes the best-selling camera in the United States -- instant or conventional -- for more than four years. The 20x24-inch camera is introduced. Polaroid stops shipments of product to South Africa and becomes the first U.S. company to pull out of South Africa completely. Land is awarded his 500th patent.

Polavision is introduced. The new instant color motion picture system makes 2 1/2 minute films in self-developing cassettes.

Time-Zero, fastest-developing instant color film, is introduced, replacing SX-70 film.

Land steps down as CEO, continues as Chairman and assumes new position of consulting director of basic research in Land photography.

Garner-Hartley commercials continue, this time introducing the Sun System, which automatically mixes strobe light and ambient light for best exposure. Type 600 high-speed color film is introduced for the new line of cameras. New products for professional and technical applications: an 8x10 film processor, Type 891 8x10 color film, and Type 612 film, an instant black and white film (ASA 20,000) for high-speed oscilloscope photography and photo instrumentation.

Mexican subsidiary formed. Land resigns from board of directors to give full-time to the Rowland Institute for Science, Inc. 
New products: 35mm Autoprocess System, which produces rapid-access color or B&W transparencies; Polaroid Palette, a desktop computer image recorder that produces color 35mm slides or Polaroid instant prints; the CR-10, a direct-screen instant CRT camera that produces B&W photos directly from CRT displays; Sun 600 LMS and the OneStep 600 cameras for consumer use. Polaroid blank videocassettes are introduced in Europe and will launch in the U.S. in 1984. I.M. (Mac) Booth is elected president, succeeding Bill McCune, who continues as chairman and CEO.

Spectra camera introduced,a new, larger-format film. FreezeFrame Video Recorder is developed jointly by Polaroid and Toshiba. Federal appeals court upholds a 1985 decision by district court, ruling that Eastman Kodak violated Polaroid patent rights in its manufacture of instant cameras and film.

Polaroid celebrates 50th anniversary. Activities include: Project Bridge to combat a nationwide shortage of math and science teachers; Legacy of Light book and exhibit; "gift of photography" program for community and festival at Boston College football stadium featuring entertainment by Steve Allen, Mariette Hartley and the Pointer Sisters.

Product introductions: Impulse and CoolCam; Bravo! overhead projectors and Slide Maker; Miniportrait 403; ID2000: mercury-free PolaPulse battery for integral films. Polaroid begins manufacturing in Mexico and China. ESOP established; holds about 20% of company stock; funded by employee pay and benefits. First non-officer employee member, Marian J. Stanley appointed to Polaroid board of directors. Shamrock Holdings, Inc. begins attempted hostile takeover.
Shamrock Holdings, Inc. agrees to terminate its tender offer and proxy contest. Product introductions: 35mm OneFilm and High Definition film; ID-4 tabletop system. Joint venture formed in Russia. Net sales: $1.9 million. Net earnings: $145 million. Employees: 11,441.

Product introductions: OneStep Flash camera; Digital Palette CI-3000 computer film recorder; ID1000 and ID2000 Plus. Shanghai subsidiary formed.

Billionth pack of instant film produced. Product introductions: Jewelry Pro II camera; 600 Business Edition camera; New Spectra High Definition film; Digital Palette CI-5000 film recorder; Digital Scanner CS-5000; Digital PhotoPrinter CI-700; Helios Model 810 medical imaging system. . Edwin H. Land, Polaroid's founder, dies at 81. Suit with Eastman Kodak settled; Kodak pays Polaroid $925 million.

Captiva camera unveiled at Shareholders' Meeting; introduced at Photokina as Vision. Will be marketed in the U.S. and Japan in 1993.  
Product introductions: Helios Laser Imager in 14x17 size format; SprintScan 35, a 35mm digital slide scanner; ID-100; ID-4000. Expansion into developing markets such as Russia.

Gary T. DiCamillo, the first "outsider" to head the company, joins Polaroid in October 1995, succeeding retiring chairman and CEO Mac Booth. Product introductions: OneStep Autofocus camera; Talking OneStep camera; PhotoPad digital scanner; Macro 5 SLR Close-up instant camera; Polaview 105 LCD projector; Dry Tech Imagesetting film, a digital color separation film; DryJet Color Proofing System.

Polaroid strategy focuses on becoming a new products company. More than 25 new products introduced, e.g., DryJet II Advanced Digital Color Proofing System; 900 series 35mm cameras; PopShots instant single-use film and camera system; Tomy Xiao Pocket Camera (in Japan); PDC 640 digital camera with PhotoMAX software, Studio Polaroid  

Focus is on core business, having exited or rationalized non-core businesses over the last few years. 9.7 million instant cameras sold, a company record. More than 400,000 digital cameras sold, making Polaroid the number-one digital camera seller in the U.S. mass-merchandising channel. Broad introduction of Polaroid I-Zone Instant Pocket Camera, JoyCam and PopShots in the U.S. Balance sheet strengthens, revenues up 7 percent vs. 1998.

2000 & Beyond

Company strategy for the future is to:

1) Continue revitalizing the core instant business with product and service innovations; and
2) Accelerate growth by linking instant with digital imaging. Three priorities are:

* Leverage core instant picture technology platform in the digital marketplace;
* Stake out a position in the mobile, digital, wireless market via fast, easy and affordable input and output solutions in areas where Polaroid has a competitive advantage: and
* Utilize the Internet and other value-added features and services to enhance customer relationships, particularly with "Generation Internet" (Gen-I) and with commercial users.


For articles, see  F2-eZine Content Archive #9 - January-March 2002